Tool Kit for Integrated Urban Water Management for Different Urban Typologies in India
IRAP began its research endeavors starting with this project. This two-year research project initiated in August 2008 was concluded in August 2010, with the generous support provided by "Arghyam" a philanthropic organization based in Bangalore working with the mission of "safe and sustainable water for all".
The major research question which the project addressed was: what are the determinants of improved performed of urban watermanagement systems, which include water supply system, wastewater treatment and disposal system and storm water management system? The main project outputs included: development of a tool kit on integrated urban water management (IUWM) for different urban typologies of India, which include technical system socio-economic systems, institutions, and legal and policy framework; and developing a WATSAN vulnerability index for towns/cities both at the household level and at the utility level. The other outputs of the project were: synthesizing international and national scientific literature on IUWM and identifying best practices in UWM, including water supply management, wastewater treatment, solid waste management, metering and pricing of water, leakage detection and reduction in water distribution systems. The IUWM tool kit would be highly useful to the managers of water utilities in designing efficient urban water management systems for their towns and cities. This study was first of its kind undertaken in the country on integrated urban water management.
Social Economic and Environmental impacts of Sardar Sarovar Project in Gujarat
This project titled "Realistic Vs Mechanistic: Analyzing the Real Economic and Social Benefits of Sardar Sarovar Narmada Project" was sponsored by Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL), to evaluate direct socio-economic impacts accruing through water supplies after the introduction of Narmada waters in urban and rural areas. It was well known that economic benefits do accrue with irrigation but the social benefits are analysed here for the first time along with direct economic benefits, which included positive and negative externalities by Narmada water supplies. They key indirect benefits which were quantified include: economic benefits due to energy saving in groundwater pumping and expanded well irrigation resulting from groundwater recharge; benefits of increased wage labour rates owing to enhanced agricultural activity; and benefits of clean energy from hydropower generation.
Study on Natural Resource management for Strengthening Agro-based livelihood in fragile regions of Gujarat and Rajasthan
This consultancy assignment examined the corporate initiatives for wider issues in strengthening agro livelihoods in fragile regions. The assignment monitored and analyzed the following aspects: 1] The hydrological, social and economical impacts of RWHSs for domestic water security at the household level; 2] The physical (hydrological, hydro-dynamic and geo-hydro-chemical) changes associated with land and water based interventions for artificial recharge of groundwater at the local (village & watershed) and basin level; 3] The Social-economic impacts of these interventions at the individual farm level, and at the village and basin level; 4] The environmental impacts of these interventions at the village/watershed and basin level; and 5] The physical and socioeconomic impacts of agricultural development interventions on the individual adopter households and villages.
Converting tanks and ponds into multiple use water systems for poverty reduction and livelihood enhancement
This is a project supported by International Water Management Institute (IWMI), India under IWMI-Tata water policy program. The study involved the following: 1] Analysis of various existing demands for water from them for both consumptive and productive water needs from the individual households and community at large; 2] Analysis of how various tank uses and degree of equity in access to water change with drought & floods, and their likely impacts on the livelihoods of the poor; 3] Assessment of economic value of the various benefits and cost associated with different tank uses, and how they change in response to climatic variability; 4] Analysis of the tradeoff between maximizing the direct economic outputs, and optimizing economic, social and environmental benefits, and poverty reduction impacts of MUS systems; 5] Assessment of the physical improvements in the tank system for improving their overall performance as MUSs and; 6] Identification of institutional arrangements and organization structures for management of tanks as multiple use systems that ensure sustainable water supplies for the poor.
Mid Term review of the Project on Water and Livelihood Security
This research assignment was carried out in North Karnataka and South Bihar and sponsored by SDTT, Mumbai. The project was in the nature of a mid course appraisal involving extensive desk research and field level investigations. The assessment of progress achieved included other components like expenditure incurred, community participation achieved along with NGO and government cooperation by Dhan Foundation.
Estimating Irrigation Efficiencies and Physical Productivity of Water in Sugarcane: Analysis from Godavari River Basin in Maharashtra
The overall objective of this research study was to analyze the extent to which water saving in irrigated sugarcane could be achieved at the regional level by improvements in water productivity of sugarcane in parts of Godavari river basin in Maharashtra. This research project was commissioned by World Wide Fund for Nature, New Delhi.
Making 'Rehabilitation' Work: Protocols for improving performance of irrigation tanks in Andhra Pradesh
This project was supported by SRTT, Mumbai under SGP. The goal of this project was to develop protocols for tank rehabilitation in Andhra Pradesh, comprising development criteria for selection of tanks for rehabilitation, and the management strategies to be followed in rehabilitation of tanks for improved performance. The specific objectives were 1] Analyze the impact of well development and groundwater intensive use in tank catchment and commands on tank performance in terms of irrigated area; 2] Analyze the impact of catchment cultivation practices on tank performance in terms of area irrigated; 3] Identify the physical, socio-economic, institutional and environmental factors that result in good overall performance of tanks; and 4] evolve the criteria for selection of tanks for rehabilitation, and work out the broad management strategies for sustaining and improving the performance of the selected tanks.
The study involved an eclectic approach. It used analysis of primary data collected from selected well-performing and non-performing tanks, which were both quantitative and qualitative in nature for six selected systems along with secondary data collected from the state minor irrigation department on tank and well irrigation and land use in catchments (on a time scale) at different scales (state, district and individual tanks) for addressing the key research questions. The tanks were selected in such a way that the hydrological and socio-economic environments are not uniform. The districts from which tanks were chosen for primary survey are: Kurnool, Nizamabad and Vizianagaram. Two tanks, on well performing and one not-so well performing, were selected from each district.
Strategies for Improved Sanitation in Rural Andhra Pradesh
This project is in final stages of completion. This project is aimed at evolving strategies for improved sanitation in the rural areas of the state with a focus on access equity, equity and sustainability, with the involvement of various key stakeholders of rural water supply & sanitation in Andhra Pradesh. The study has five important components: a]orienting the field level staff of the state level agency concerned with water supply & sanitation to the methods and tools for gathering data on the sanitation adoption; b] Assessing the extent of actual adoption of improved sanitation systems in rural areas of the state, particularly as a result of institutional reforms such as the Total Sanitation Campaign through an extensive survey of adopters and non-adopters; c]Identifying the determinants and motivating factors for adoption of improved sanitation, and understand various constraints to adoption, or assess "adoption state determinants" leading to the assessment of demand for improved sanitation among non-adopters, based on further analysis of the survey data; d] Evolving comprehensive strategies for promoting environmental sanitation in rural areas, based on learning from field research, international experience, and knowledge and experience of key stakeholders in the sector; and 5] Building capacities of the state level officers in water supply and sanitation sector to implement the environmental sanitation strategies. The study was undertaken at the instance of UNICEF, Hyderabad.
Multiple-use water services to reduce poverty and vulnerability to climate variability and change(A) & Developing a Sustainable Rural Water Supply Policy informed by Rural Sanitation (B).
- IRAP is currently engaged in an action research project on "Multiple use water services to reduce poverty and vulnerability to climate variability and change" under a project cooperation agreement with UNICEF, Mumbai, in partnership with Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Maharashtra. The goal of this project is to develop replicable models of multiple use system (MUS), which will provide a year-round access to water for domestic and productive uses under varying climates, for vulnerable households in three gram Panchayats of Maharashtra. The project has started in June 2010.
The objectives of the project are 1] To identify and assess the key domestic and productive water needs of poor rural households and the different physical and socio-economic factors; 2] To develop an index reflecting the vulnerability of poor rural households; 3]To design sustainable Multiple Use Water Systems for the most vulnerable households in at least three programme location; 4] To pilot the model of MUSs based in three project locations in Maharashtra; and 5] To assess the impact of the MUS interventions on the vulnerability and livelihood security. On completion of the project, the study is expected to come out with MUS models for different typologies in Maharashtra.
- The goal of this study is to evolve policies for sustainable rural water supply in Maharashtra. The objectives of the study are 1] Get informed of the overall governance and management of rural water supply schemes in the state of Maharashtra (vis-à-vis Governance practice, Management performance, Human resource capabilities, community participation and devolution); 2] Analysis of techno-institutional models of water supply and their influence on the (management) performance of water supply schemes and developmental outcomes, with particular reference to MWUS; 3] Analyze how the institutional setting and policy regimes relating to rural water supply sector affect the government and management of rural water supply schemes; and 4] Identify the nature of institutional and policy reforms needed for ensuring sustainable drinking water supply in rural areas.
The key deliverables are a] toolkit for designing MWUS systems for rural Maharashtra; b] A document prescribing the institutional and policy regimes for sustainable rural water supply in Maharashtra; and c] Reports of the state level consultations on rural water supply policies.