Mapping of Climate Risk in WASH sector of Rajasthan
Vast heterogeneity in the natural environment (hydrology, geohydrology and climate), the characteristics of the physical systems of water supply, the socio-economic conditions and cultural environment, among different regions of Rajasthan, have significant implications for the water supply, sanitation and hygiene related risks faced by communities from climate extremes.
The project undertaken by the Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy (IRAP) in technical and financial collaboration with the office of United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in Jaipur, India, assesses and maps climate risk in WASH at the district level, covering the entire state of Rajasthan. It involves development of an index for assessing climate risk in WASH and computation of the index at the district level. The long-term objective of the proposed project is to build institutional capacities in the rural WASH sector of the state to plan, design and build climate-resilient water and sanitation systems converging with existing national and state flagships on rural water and sanitation and associated sector of water resource management, informed by proper climate risk assessment in different regions and districts of the State.
Improving the Performance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Maharashtra, under the Unnat Maharashtra Abhiyan (UMA)
After initiating several reform measures, the Water Supply and Sanitation Department (WSSD), Maharashtra, is experimenting with new institutional arrangements aimed at improving sector performance, through Unnat Maharashtra Abhiyan (UMA). UMA is an initiative of Ministry of Higher and Technical Education, whose mandate is to build an independent and public knowledge infrastructure for Maharashtra for socio-economic and cultural development of its people. The objectives of UMA are to seek alignment of existing curricula and ongoing research with regional development needs, re-emphasize field-work and case-studies as an important part of pedagogy, provide formal mechanism for local bodies to access a regional engineering college, including the IITs, for their knowledge needs, and to obtain funding and data for the same. Under this programme, WSSD aims to engage teachers and students of UMA recognised engineering colleges to help in monitoring and evaluation of rural water supply schemes in collaboration with IIT-Mumbai.
The overall objective of this project is to build the capacities of Engineering College teachers and students in planning, design, and monitoring and evaluation of rural water supply schemes, with the aim of strengthening the institutional capabilities of WSSD for enhanced performance of rural water supply schemes, through a structured training programme. It involved development of a training compendium and structured training programmes.
Climate Risk Analysis-UNICEF, Mumbai
This project is about building institutional capacities in the rural WASH sector of Maharashtra to plan, design and build climate-resilient water and sanitation systems, informed by planning based on climate risk assessment in two distinct regions of the state. Mapping the magnitude of various risks in water supply and sanitation associated with climate variability and change is an important component of this project. The project would also identify the technical and institutional innovations required in the existing national and state government programmes related to WATSAN to make the water supply and sanitation interventions resilient against climate-induced risks.
Support to the Clean Ganga initiative and preparation for wider EU-India cooperation on water issues
This project undertaken for the European Commission through AETS Consortium involved local project coordination involving supporting project team members for the identification of relevant materials and stakeholders, establishing and maintaining contacts with Indian stakeholders, stakeholder consultations, organisation of meetings and consolidation of outputs.
Market Analysis for Desalinated Water
This was a 9 month long study undertaken by Dr Dinesh Kumar, involving the market analysis for desalinated water for drinking water supply and irrigated agriculture in India. The study was undertaken for USAID (United States Agency for International Development) through DAI Consulting, Washington, D.C.
WRG 2030 through Fresh Thoughts: undertaking a pre-feasibility assessment of setting up of “Centre of Excellence” for Water Resources and River Rejuvenation in the State of Uttar Pradesh
Rejuvenation of Tanks in Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh: Examining the Technical Feasibility of Interlinking and Integration with Large Water Systems
This was a pre-feasibility study undertaken for the Water Resources Department of the government of Andhra Pradesh to explore the possibility of interlinking of cascade tanks in Rayalaseema Region (covering six districts, viz., Kurnool, Anantapur, Cuddapah, Chittoor, Nellore and Prakasam) and integrating them with the large water systems to provide dependable source of water so as to augment (supplement) their yields and enhance the overall performance for drought proofing of the region. The study mapped the tank water bodies in the region, with estimation of their water spread area and storage capacity; analyzed the hydrological and topographical characteristics of the river basins and the water systems; proposed five link canals which could transfer water from surplus basins and reservoirs in the region to thousands of tanks spread over the region; and undertook a rapid cost-benefit analysis of the proposed links.
Water Resource Management for Improved Climate Resilience in Chhattisgarh part of Mahanadi River Basin
This study was undertaken for the Oxford Policy Management Limited (OPML), UK for the project, Action for Climate Today (ACT), supported by DFID. The overall aim of the study was to develop strategies in the water resources management sector in Chhattisgarh state for adapting to stresses induced by climate change, with particular focus on Mahanadi basin. For achieving this, the study assessed the overall water resource availability and current water uses across competitive use sectors; analysed issues (technical, institutional and policy related) in water resource planning and management; performed water balance studies and projected future scenarios (under climate change and various socio-economic process) of water supplies and demand using WEAP; analysed the potential impact of various water management interventions on basin's water supply-demand balance and identified the viable interventions that would improve basin-wide water resources management; and suggested reforms needed for capacity building of the State’s water resources sector for climate change adaptation.
Operational Research for Mainstreaming Integrated Flood Management under Climate change
This project was undertaken by Deltares, Netherlands for the National Water Mission, with support from the Asian Development Bank and DFID. IRAP was one of its consortium partners in the study to carry out institutional analysis for integrated flood management. The aim of the project was to analyze the floods in the twin basins of Burhi-Gandak in Bihar and Brahmani-Baitarani in Odisha, in the event of climate change, through flood modelling; identify a combination of structural and non-structural measures to increase the resilience of the communities to floods in the selected basins; analyze the institutional alternatives for integrated flood management; and develop DPR for flood management and suggest investment plans.
The factors causing the Agrarian Crisis in India: A Study from four agro-ecological Regions in four States
The aim of this 18-month long study was to identify the various physical, socio-economic, institutional and policy factors causing the current agrarian crisis in India, and to suggest institutional and policy measures for mitigating this crisis. The study involved analysis of primary data collected from farmers in four locations in India, viz., north Gujarat; Vidarbha region of Maharashtra; Coastal region of West Bengal and coastal Andhra Pradesh, each representing a unique agro climate. This project was undertaken with financial aid from the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR).
Catchment Assessment and Planning for Watershed Management in India
The World Bank, through its PROFOR programme, engaged a team including two researchers from IRAP for an 18 month-long study on landscape level catchment management planning. The major objectives of this project were: to prepare a strategic review paper on Catchment Assessment and Planning for Watershed Management; derive an improved methodology for catchment management planning in the Indian context; to demonstrate this methodology in one sub catchment; and to create practical tools to apply in government watershed programmes such as the Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of the DoLR in the MoRD, GoI.
Study of Existing minor Irrigation scheme in West Bengal
This project was undertaken for the Government of West Bengal, by Deloitte with IRAP as its consortium partner and funded by the World Bank, New Delhi. The project analyzed the key technical, institutional and social factors rendering minor irrigation schemes defunct in the State and also identified the range of physical and socio-economic factors that enable improved performance of such schemes.
Using Technology to Ensure Ground Water Safety and Security in a Tribal Block of Chandrapur, Maharashtra
The main goal of this project, which was supported by UNICEF-Mumbai, was sustainable management of groundwater resources locally for drinking water security through better prediction of drinking water scarcity for the most deprived sections of the society, the tribal population, based on real time monitoring of the daily rainfall and ground water levels at high frequency. The study was carried out in Chandrapur district of Vidarbha region in Maharashtra. IRAP developed a decision support tool (DST) for drought prediction as part of this study, and also a manual on the use of this tool.
Study on enhancing agricultural water productivity in South Asia – IWMI, New Delhi
This desk top study, involving extensive literature review, dealt with water productivity (WP) in agriculture globally in general and South Asian in particular. It dealt with the analytical procedure for measuring water productivity (WP) at plant, field, system and basin scales, and mechanisms for monitoring the same at various scales. It presents the WP trends at the field and region level in different regions of South Asia and the factors that have contributed to the changes; the imperative of the projected growth in demand for agricultural commodities in South Asia for raising crop WP; and the constraints in improving WP in agriculture in South Asian countries.
Multiple-use water services to reduce poverty and vulnerability to climate variability and change. Developing a Sustainable Rural Water Supply Policy informed by Rural Sanitation
The action research project on “Multiple use water services to reduce poverty and vulnerability to climate variability and change” was carried out under a project cooperation agreement with UNICEF, Mumbai, in partnership with the Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Maharashtra. The goal of this project was to develop replicable models of a multiple use system (MUS), which will provide year-round access to water for domestic and productive uses under varying climates, for vulnerable rural households in three gram Panchayats of Maharashtra.
The key deliverables on developing a sustainable rural water supply in Maharashtra were a toolkit for designing MWUS systems for rural Maharashtra, a document prescribing the institutional and policy regimes for sustainable rural water supply in Maharashtraand reports on the state level consultations on rural water supply policies.
Strategies for Improved Sanitation in Rural Andhra Pradesh
This project was aimed at evolving strategies for improved sanitation in the rural areas of the state with a focus on access equity, equity and sustainability, with the involvement of various key stakeholders of rural water supply& sanitation in Andhra Pradesh and was undertaken at the instance of UNICEF, Hyderabad.
The study was aimed at the following: orienting the field level staff of the state level agency concerned with water supply & sanitation to the methods and tools for gathering data on the sanitation adoption; assessing the extent of actual adoption of improved sanitation systems in rural areas of the state, under the Total Sanitation Campaign; identifying the determinants and motivating factors for adoption of improved sanitation; assessing “adoption state determinants; and evolving comprehensive strategies for promoting environmental sanitation in rural areas.
Social Economic and Environmental impacts of Sardar Sarovar Project in Gujarat
This project titled “Realistic Vs Mechanistic: Analyzing the Real Economic and Social Benefits of Sardar Sarovar Narmada Project” was sponsored by Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL), to evaluate the direct and indirect social and economic impacts of introduction of water from Sardar Sarovar project for irrigation and domestic use, and hydropower generation. The study led to the publication of the book titled The Sardar Sarovar Project: Assessing Economic and Social Impacts, by Sage Publications, New Delhi in 2015.
Estimating Irrigation Efficiencies and Physical Productivity of Water in Sugarcane: Analysis from Godavari River Basin in Maharashtra.
The overall objective of this research study was to analyze the extent to which water saving in irrigated sugarcane could be achieved at the regional level through improvements in water productivity of the crop in parts of Godavari river basin in Maharashtra, by efficient irrigation methods such as drips, and furrow irrigation. This study was commissioned by World Wide Fund for Nature, New Delhi.
Converting tanks and ponds into multiple use water systems for poverty reduction and livelihood enhancement
This project supported by International Water Management Institute (IWMI), India under the IWMI-Tata water policy program, involved the analysis of: various existing demands for water from the tanks and ponds for both consumptive and productive needs; economic value of the various benefits and cost associated with different tank uses; the trade-offs between maximizing the direct economic outputs, and optimizing economic, social and environmental benefits, and poverty reduction impacts of Multiple Use systems (MUSs); and suggesting physical improvements and institutional innovations for improving the overall performance of tanks as MUSs.
Study on Natural Resource management for Strengthening Agro-based livelihood in fragile regions of Gujarat and Rajasthan
This consultancy assignment examined the land and water based initiatives of Ambuja Cement Foundation for wider issues in strengthening agro based livelihoods in ecologically fragile regions. The study covered coastal Saurashtra and western Rajasthan and analyzed the hydrological, social, economic and environmental impacts of roof water harvesting structures (RWHSs) artificial recharge schemes, at the individual farm level and at the village and basin level.
Making ‘Rehabilitation’ Work: Protocols for improving performance of irrigation tanks in Andhra Pradesh
This project was supported by Sir Ratan Tata Trust-Mumbai under its Small Grant Programme. The goal of this project was to develop protocols for tank rehabilitation in Andhra Pradesh, comprising development criteria for selection of tanks for rehabilitation, and the management strategies for improved performance. The study involved analyzing the impact of groundwater intensive use and catchment land use changes on performance of tanks in terms of irrigated area; and identifying the physical, socio-economic, institutional and environmental factors that result in good overall performance of tanks.
Mid Term review of the Project on Water and Livelihood Security
This assignment was undertaken by Dr Dinesh Kumar and Nitin Bassi in North Karnataka and South Bihar on a request from Sir Dorabji Tata Trust-Mumbai, as a mid-course appraisal of the tank rehabilitation programme implemented by Dhan Foundation in the respective regions with a grant from the Trust. The review involved extensive desk research and field level investigations.
Tool Kit for Integrated Urban Water Management for Different Urban Typologies in India
This two-year research project was undertaken with financial support from “Arghyam” a philanthropic organization based in Bangalore. The main project outputs included: development of a tool kit on integrated urban water management (IUWM) for different urban typologies of India, which include technical system, socio-economic systems, institutions, and legal and policy framework; and developing a WATSAN vulnerability index for towns/cities both at the household level and at the utility level. The IUWM tool kit would be highly useful to the managers of water utilities in designing efficient urban water management systems for their towns and cities. This study was first of its kind undertaken in India on integrated urban water management.
Editing a book on agricultural water productivity improvements in India
This work was undertaken by Dr Dinesh Kumar for the International Water Management Institute (IWMI). The title of the edited volume, with chapter contribution from eminent scholars in the field of agricultural water management, is Water Productivity Improvements in Indian Agriculture: Potentials, Constraints and Prospects, by M. Dr Dinesh Kumar (IRAP) and Dr Upali Amarasinghe of IWMI.